In 1930, President Herbert Hoover nominated John J. Parker of North Carolina to the U.S. Supreme Court. For the first time in 36 years, the Senate rejected a Supreme Court nominee by voting down Parker 41–39. Parker faced heavy opposition from the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) for statements he made about blacks and from the American Federation of Labor for upholding “yellow dog” labor contracts. (Yellow dog contracts are those in which an employee and employer agree that as a condition of employment, the employee agrees not to join a labor union). Hoover then nominated Owen Roberts, who was confirmed without opposition by voice vote.