The National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) was established by the U.S. federal government in 1956 as a subsidized insurance program for home and business owners. The government began the program by creating Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRM) showing the boundaries of 100-year and 500-year flood zones. The cost of the insurance is based on the flood risk. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) oversees the program and requires the purchase of flood insurance by any owner affected by a disaster before they can be provided with disaster assistance. This way, the next time a flood occurs, they will be insured.